Karl C. Mayer, Facharzt für Neurologie, Psychiatrie und Facharzt für Psychotherapeutische Medizin, Psychoanalyse

Glossar: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y

Seite 7


Weiter Zurück



International Society of Hypertension (WHO-ISH) 1999 neu definierten Richtlinien für die Einteilung des Hypertonus

Kategorie Systolisch (mmHg) Diastolisch (mmHg)
Optimaler Blutdruck < 120 < 80
Normaler Blutdruck < 130 < 85
Hochnormaler Blutdruck 130–139 85–89
Stufe 1: leichte Hypertonie 140–159 90–99
grenzwertig leichte Hypertonie 140–149 90–94
Stufe 2: mittelgradige Hypertonie 160–179 100–109
Stufe 3: hochgradige Hypertonie 180   110
isolierte systolische Hypertonie (ISH) 140 < 90
grenzwertige ISH 140–149 < 90


Schweizer Bluthochdruckinformation Bloodpressure.com Diabetic and Hypertensive Nephropathy Research Center Mayo Clinic Hypertonus



A. Gesicherte zusätzliche Wirkungen/Indikationen

 AVP-Sonderheft Therapieempfehlungen Antihypertensiva 1. Auflage, August 1998 ARZNEIMITTELKOMMISSION DER DEUTSCHEN ÄRZTESCHAFT 

Diabetes mellitus mit Proteinurie



ACE-Hemmer, Diuretika

Isolierte systolische Hypertonie (ältere Patienten

 Diuretika (bevorzugt), Calciumantagonisten, (langwirkende Dihydropyridine)



Z. n. Myokardinfarkt

Betarezeptorenblocker (ohne ISA), ACE-Hemmer, (bei systolischer Dysfunktion)



B. Günstige Wirkungen möglich


Angina pectoris

Betarezeptorenblocker, Calciumantagonisten, (Dihydropyridine bei instabiler Angina pectoris kontraindiziert)



Vorhoftachykardie und -flimmern  

Betarezeptorenblocker, Clonidin, Calciumantagonisten (Nicht-Dihydropyridine)



Diabetes mellitus,

niedrig dosierte Betarezeptorenblocker, Alpharezeptorenblocker




Betarezeptorenblocker (ohne ISA)

Benigne Prostatahyperplasie


Niereninsuffizienz     (Cave: renovaskuläre Hypertonie und Kreatinin ³ 3 mg/dl)




C. Nachteilige Wirkungen möglich


Obstruktive Ventilationsstörungen    


Diabetes mellitus (nichtselektive)

Betarezeptorenblocker, hochdosierte Diuretika, Calciumantagonisten








Betarezeptorenblocker, Calciumantagonisten (Nicht-Dihydropyridine)

Periphere arterielle Verschlußkrankheit 

(nichtselektive) Betarezeptorenblocker

Niereninsuffizienz Kaliumsparende Mittel,

Thiazide nicht bei Kreatinin > 2mg/dl


ACE-Hemmer, AT 1 –Rezeptorenblocker


Weiter Zurück
  1. Alberts et al. Recommendations for the Establishment of Primary Stroke Centers  JAMA 2000;283:3102-3109. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT  
  2. ARZNEIMITTELKOMMISSION DER DEUTSCHEN ÄRZTESCHAFT AVP-Sonderheft Therapieempfehlungen Antihypertensiva 1. Auflage, August 1998
  3. Hypertension collection des New England Journal of Medicine http://content.nejm.org/cgi/collection/hypertension
  4. August P.Initial Treatment of Hypertension N Engl J Med 2003; 348:610-617, Feb 13, 2003. Clinical PracticeExtract | Full Text | PDF  
  5. B. M. Egan, D. T. Lackland, and N. E. Cutler Awareness, Knowledge, and Attitudes of Older Americans About High Blood Pressure: Implications for Health Care Policy, Education, and Research Archives of Internal Medicine, March 24, 2003; 163(6): 681 - 687. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
  6. B. M. Psaty, T. A. Manolio, N. L. Smith, S. R. Heckbert, J. S. Gottdiener, G. L. Burke, J. Weissfeld, P. Enright, T. Lumley, N. Powe, and C. D. Furberg Time Trends in High Blood Pressure Control and the Use of Antihypertensive Medications in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study Archives of Internal Medicine, November 11, 2002; 162(20): 2325 - 2332. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
  7. Barnett and Meldrum Carotid Endarterectomy: A Neurotherapeutic Advance  Arch Neurol 2000;57:40-45. FULL TEXT  
  8. Barnett et al. The appropriate use of carotid endarterectomy Can Med Assoc J 2002;166:1169-1179. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT  
  9. Bluth et al. Power Doppler Imaging: Initial Evaluation as a Screening Examination for Carotid Artery Stenosis  Radiology 2000;215:791-800.ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT  
  10. Booth et al. Waging war on modern chronic diseases: primary prevention through exercise biology  J. Appl. Physiol. 2000;88:774-787.ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT  
  11. Booth et al. Waging war on physical inactivity: using modern molecular ammunition against an ancient enemy  J. Appl. Physiol. 2002;93:3-30.ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT  
  12. Brayne Smoking and the brain  BMJ 2000;320:1087-1088. FULL TEXT  
  13. C. Alli, F. Avanzini, G. Bettelli, F. Colombo, V. Torri, G. Tognoni, and and general practitioners of SPAA The Long-term Prognostic Significance of Repeated Blood Pressure Measurements in the Elderly: SPAA (Studio sulla Pressione Arteriosa nell'Anziano) 10-Year Follow-up Archives of Internal Medicine, June 14, 1999; 159(11): 1205 - 1212. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
  14. D. L. Clement and Others Prognostic Value of Ambulatory Blood-Pressure Recordings in Patients with Treated Hypertension, NEJM 348:2407-2415Abstract | Full Text | PDF | CME Exam  
  15. C. K. Roberts, N. D. Vaziri, and R. J. Barnard Effect of Diet and Exercise Intervention on Blood Pressure, Insulin, Oxidative Stress, and Nitric Oxide Availability
    Circulation, November 12, 2002; 106(20): 2530 - 2532.
    [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]

  16. D. Gu, K. Reynolds, X. Wu, J. Chen, X. Duan, P. Muntner, G. Huang, R. F. Reynolds, S. Su, P. K. Whelton, and J. He Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension in China Hypertension, December 1, 2002; 40(6): 920 - 927. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]

  17. D. M. Lloyd-Jones, J. C. Evans, M. G. Larson, C. J. O'Donnell, P. W. F. Wilson, and D. Levy Cross-classification of JNC VI Blood Pressure Stages and Risk Groups in the Framingham Heart Study Archives of Internal Medicine, October 11, 1999; 159(18): 2206 - 2212. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
  18. D. R. Berlowitz, A. S. Ash, E. C. Hickey, M. Glickman, R. Friedman, and B. Kader
    Hypertension Management in Patients With Diabetes: The need for more aggressive therapy Diabetes Care, February 1, 2003; 26(2): 355 - 359.  [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
  19. D. Woo, L. R. Sauerbeck, B. M. Kissela, J. C. Khoury, J. P. Szaflarski, J. Gebel, R. Shukla, A. M. Pancioli, E. C. Jauch, A. G. Menon, R. Deka, J. A. Carrozzella, C. J. Moomaw, R. N. Fontaine, J. P. Broderick, J. Rosand, and S. M. Greenberg Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Preliminary Results of a Population-Based Study * Editorial Comment: Preliminary Results of a Population-Based Study Stroke, May 1, 2002; 33(5): 1190 - 1196.  [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]

  20. Gorelick Stroke Prevention Therapy Beyond Antithrombotics: Unifying Mechanisms in Ischemic Stroke Pathogenesis and Implications for Therapy: An Invited Review  Stroke 2002;33:862-875. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT  
  21. Greenlund et al. Physician Advice, Patient Actions, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Secondary Prevention of Stroke Through Diet and Exercise * The Physician's Role in Helping Patients to Increase Physical Activity and Improve Eating Habits  Stroke 2002;33:565-571. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT  
  22. Gubitz and Sandercock Regular review: Prevention of ischaemic stroke,  BMJ 2000;321:1455-1459. FULL TEXT  
  23. H. K. Wolf, P. Andreou, I. R. Bata, D. G. Comeau, R. D. Gregor, G. Kephart, D. R. MacLean, and I. Sketris Trends in the prevalence and treatment of hypertension in Halifax County from 1985 to 1995 Can. Med. Assoc. J., September 1, 1999; 161(6): 699 - 704. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]

  24. Hansson L, Lindholm LH, Ekbom T, et at., for the STOP-Hypertension-2 Study Group. Randomised trial of old and new antihypertensive drugs in elderly patients: cardiovascular mortality and morbidity - the Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension-2 Study. Lancet 1999;354: 1751-6.

  25.  H. HohageArterielle Hypertonie - Pharmakotherapie - Endorganschäden - Begleiterkrankungen -Antihypertensiva  Der Internist Suppl 1-2000

  26. H. K. Wolf, P. Andreou, I. R. Bata, D. G. Comeau, R. D. Gregor, G. Kephart, D. R. MacLean, and I. Sketris Trends in the prevalence and treatment of hypertension in Halifax County from 1985 to 1995Can. Med. Assoc. J., September 1, 1999; 161(6): 699 - 704. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]

  27. H. Snieder, G. A. Harshfield, and F. A. Treiber Heritability of Blood Pressure and Hemodynamics in African- and European-American Youth Hypertension, June 1, 2003; 41(6): 1196 - 1201. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
  28. Hart and Bailey  An assessment of guidelines for prevention of ischemic stroke  
    Neurology 2002;59:977-982. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT  
  29. Holloway et al. Stroke prevention: Narrowing the evidence-practice gap  Neurology 2000;54:1899-1906. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT  
  30. Holroyd-Leduc et al. Sex Differences and Similarities in the Management and Outcome of Stroke Patients  Stroke 2000;31:1833-1837. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT  
  31. Hommel and Jaillard, Alcohol for Stroke Prevention?  N Engl J Med 1999;341:1605-1606. FULL TEXT  
  32. Hu et al. Physical Activity and Risk of Stroke in Women  JAMA 2000;283:2961-2967. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT  
  33. Inzitari et al. The Causes and Risk of Stroke in Patients with Asymptomatic Internal-Carotid-Artery Stenosis  N Engl J Med 2000;342:1693-1701. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT  
  34. J. He, P. Muntner, J. Chen, E. J. Roccella, R. H. Streiffer, and P. K. Whelton Factors Associated With Hypertension Control in the General Population of the United States Archives of Internal Medicine, May 13, 2002; 162(9): 1051 - 1058. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
  35. J. S. Cohen Adverse Drug Effects, Compliance, and Initial Doses of Antihypertensive Drugs Recommended by the Joint National Committee vs the Physicians' Desk Reference Archives of Internal Medicine, March 26, 2001; 161(6): 880 - 885. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]

  36. J. Stamler, K. Liu, K. J. Ruth, J. Pryer, and P. Greenland Eight-Year Blood Pressure Change in Middle-Aged Men: Relationship to Multiple Nutrients Hypertension, May 1, 2002; 39(5): 1000 - 1006. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]

  37. K. Bjorklund, L. Lind, B. Zethelius, B. Andren, and H. Lithell Isolated Ambulatory Hypertension Predicts Cardiovascular Morbidity in Elderly Men Circulation, March 11, 2003; 107(9): 1297 - 1302. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
  38. K. Wolf-Maier, R. S. Cooper, J. R. Banegas, S. Giampaoli, H.-W. Hense, M. Joffres, M. Kastarinen, N. Poulter, P. Primatesta, F. Rodriguez-Artalejo, B. Stegmayr, M. Thamm, J. Tuomilehto, D. Vanuzzo, and F. Vescio Hypertension Prevalence and Blood Pressure Levels in 6 European Countries, Canada, and the United States JAMA, May 14, 2003; 289(18): 2363 - 2369. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
  39. L. P. Lowe, P. Greenland, K. J. Ruth, A. R. Dyer, R. Stamler, and J. Stamler Impact of Major Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, Particularly in Combination, on 22-Year Mortality in Women and Men Archives of Internal Medicine, October 12, 1998; 158(18): 2007 - 2014. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
  40. M. F. Muldoon, P. Nazzaro, K. Sutton-Tyrrell, and S. B. Manuck White-Coat Hypertension and Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis: A Matching Study
    Archives of Internal Medicine, May 22, 2000; 160(10): 1507 - 1512. 
    [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
  41. M. I. Goran, G. D. C. Ball, and M. L. Cruz Obesity and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Children and Adolescents J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., April 1, 2003; 88(4): 1417 - 1427. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
  42. M. J. Klag, N.-Y. Wang, L. A. Meoni, F. L. Brancati, L. A. Cooper, K.-Y. Liang, J. H. Young, and D. E. Ford Coffee Intake and Risk of Hypertension: The Johns Hopkins Precursors Study Archives of Internal Medicine, March 25, 2002; 162(6): 657 - 662. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
  43. Malarcher et al. Alcohol Intake, Type of Beverage, and the Risk of Cerebral Infarction in Young Women  Stroke 2001;32:77-83. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT  
  44. Massey Dairy Food Consumption, Blood Pressure and Stroke  J. Nutr. 2001;131:1875-1878.
  45. Messerli, F. H., Grossman, E., Sowers, J. R. (2001). Diabetes, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Disease: An Update Response. Hypertension 38: e11-11 [Full Text]  
  46. OKAMOTO et al. Treatment of Vascular Dementia, Annals NYAS Online 2002;977:507-512. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT  
  47. P. K. Whelton, J. He, L. J. Appel, J. A. Cutler, S. Havas, T. A. Kotchen, E. J. Roccella, R. Stout, C. Vallbona, M. C. Winston, J. Karimbakas, and for the National High Blood Pressure Education Pro Primary Prevention of Hypertension: Clinical and Public Health Advisory From the National High Blood Pressure Education Program JAMA, October 16, 2002; 288(15): 1882 - 1888.  [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
  48. Poeck Hacke Lehrbuch Neurologie, Springer 10. Aufl.
  49. P. R. Steffen, A. L. Hinderliter, J. A. Blumenthal, and A. Sherwood Religious Coping, Ethnicity, and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Psychosom Med, July 1, 2001; 63(4): 523 - 530.  [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]

  50. R. S. Vasan, M. G. Larson, E. P. Leip, J. C. Evans, C. J. O'Donnell, W. B. Kannel, and D. Levy Impact of High-Normal Blood Pressure on the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease N. Engl. J. Med., November 1, 2001; 345(18): 1291 - 1297. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]

  51. Reynolds et al. Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Stroke: A Meta-analysis  JAMA 2003;289:579-588. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT  
  52. S. J. C. Davies, P. R. Jackson, L. E. Ramsay, and P. Ghahramani Drug Intolerance Due to Nonspecific Adverse Effects Related to Psychiatric Morbidity in Hypertensive Patients Archives of Internal Medicine, March 10, 2003; 163(5): 592 - 600.  [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
  53. S. Levenstein, M. W. Smith, and G. A. Kaplan Psychosocial Predictors of Hypertension in Men and Women Archives of Internal Medicine, May 28, 2001; 161(10): 1341 - 1346.  [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
  54. Sacco et al. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Ischemic Stroke in the Elderly: The Northern Manhattan Stroke Study  JAMA 2001;285:2729-2735. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT  
  55. Sacco Extracranial Carotid Stenosis  N Engl J Med 2001;345:1113-1118. FULL TEXT  
  56. Soyama et al. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Risk of Stroke in Japanese Men and Women: The Oyabe Study  Stroke 2003;34:863-868. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT  
  57. Straus et al. New Evidence for Stroke Prevention: Scientific Review  JAMA 2002;288:1388-1395. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT  
  58. Wassertheil-Smoller et al. Effect of Estrogen Plus Progestin on Stroke in Postmenopausal Women: The Women's Health Initiative: A Randomized Trial JAMA 2003;289:2673-2684. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT  
  59. Writing Group of the PREMIER Collaborative Researc Effects of Comprehensive Lifestyle Modification on Blood Pressure Control: Main Results of the PREMIER Clinical Trial JAMA, April 23, 2003; 289(16): 2083 - 2093. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
  60. Yuan et al. Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque: Noninvasive MR Characterization and Identification of Vulnerable Lesions Radiology 2001;221:285-299. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT